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    These devices also allow multiple users to interact with the touchscreen simultaneously. With the growing use of touchscreens, the cost of touchscreen technology is routinely absorbed into the products that incorporate it and is nearly eliminated.

    The ability to accurately point on the screen itself is also advancing with the emerging graphics tablet-screen hybrids.

    Polyvinylidene fluoride PVFD plays a major role in this innovation due its high piezoelectric properties, which allow the tablet to sense pressure, making such things as digital painting behave more like paper and pencil.

    TapSense, announced in October , allows touchscreens to distinguish what part of the hand was used for input, such as the fingertip, knuckle and fingernail.

    This could be used in a variety of ways, for example, to copy and paste, to capitalize letters, to activate different drawing modes, etc.

    A real practical integration between television-images and the functions of a normal modern PC could be an innovation in the near future: for example "all-live-information" on the internet about a film or the actors on video, a list of other music during a normal video clip of a song or news about a person.

    For touchscreens to be effective input devices, users must be able to accurately select targets and avoid accidental selection of adjacent targets.

    The design of touchscreen interfaces should reflect technical capabilities of the system, ergonomics , cognitive psychology and human physiology.

    Guidelines for touchscreen designs were first developed in the s, based on early research and actual use of older systems, typically using infrared grids—which were highly dependent on the size of the user's fingers.

    These guidelines are less relevant for the bulk of modern devices which use capacitive or resistive touch technology. From the mids, makers of operating systems for smartphones have promulgated standards, but these vary between manufacturers, and allow for significant variation in size based on technology changes, so are unsuitable from a human factors perspective.

    Much more important is the accuracy humans have in selecting targets with their finger or a pen stylus. The accuracy of user selection varies by position on the screen: users are most accurate at the center, less so at the left and right edges, and least accurate at the top edge and especially the bottom edge.

    This user inaccuracy is a result of parallax , visual acuity and the speed of the feedback loop between the eyes and fingers. The precision of the human finger alone is much, much higher than this, so when assistive technologies are provided—such as on-screen magnifiers—users can move their finger once in contact with the screen with precision as small as 0.

    Users of handheld and portable touchscreen devices hold them in a variety of ways, and routinely change their method of holding and selection to suit the position and type of input.

    There are four basic types of handheld interaction:. Use rates vary widely. In addition, devices are often placed on surfaces desks or tables and tablets especially are used in stands.

    The user may point, select or gesture in these cases with their finger or thumb, and vary use of these methods.

    Touchscreens are often used with haptic response systems. A common example of this technology is the vibratory feedback provided when a button on the touchscreen is tapped.

    Haptics are used to improve the user's experience with touchscreens by providing simulated tactile feedback, and can be designed to react immediately, partly countering on-screen response latency.

    On top of this, a study conducted in by Boston College explored the effects that touchscreens haptic stimulation had on triggering psychological ownership of a product.

    Their research concluded that a touchscreens ability to incorporate high amounts of haptic involvement resulted in customers feeling more endowment to the products they were designing or buying.

    The study also reported that consumers using a touchscreen were willing to accept a higher price point for the items they were purchasing. Touchscreen technology has become integrated into many aspects of customer service industry in the 21st century.

    Chain restaurants such as Taco Bell, [81] Panera Bread, and McDonald's offer touchscreens as an option when customers are ordering items off the menu.

    Customers sit down to a table embedded with touchscreens and order off an extensive menu. Once the order is placed it is sent electronically to the kitchen.

    Extended use of gestural interfaces without the ability of the user to rest their arm is referred to as "gorilla arm".

    Certain early pen-based interfaces required the operator to work in this position for much of the workday. This phenomenon is often cited as an example of movements to be minimized by proper ergonomic design.

    Unsupported touchscreens are still fairly common in applications such as ATMs and data kiosks, but are not an issue as the typical user only engages for brief and widely spaced periods.

    Touchscreens can suffer from the problem of fingerprints on the display. This can be mitigated by the use of materials with optical coatings designed to reduce the visible effects of fingerprint oils.

    Most modern smartphones have oleophobic coatings, which lessen the amount of oil residue. Another option is to install a matte-finish anti-glare screen protector , which creates a slightly roughened surface that does not easily retain smudges.

    Touchscreens do not work most of the time when the user wears gloves. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Touch Sensitive. Main article: Resistive touchscreen.

    Main article: Surface acoustic wave. Main article: Capacitive sensing. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. September Journal of the Society for Information Display.

    YC Young Children. CERN Courrier. Archived from the original on 4 September Retrieved Electronics Letters.

    Malvern Radar and Technology History Society. Archived from the original on 31 January Retrieved 24 July The Controller.

    Design News : 54— Symmetry Magazine. Archived from the original on Retrieved 16 November Retrieved 29 July Archived from the original on 19 May Retrieved 6 April Ebeling, R.

    Johnson, R. Touch Computer Archived at the Wayback Machine. YouTube Retrieved on Archived from the original on 23 July Reed Business Information.

    Archived from the original on January 31, — via Google Books. Wikimedia Commons. Improving the accuracy of touch screens: an experimental evaluation of three strategies.

    Washington, DC. In Hartson, R. Advances in Human-Computer Interaction. Ablex Archived from the original on October 9, Archived from the original on 13 March Retrieved 3 December Event occurs at min in video.

    Archived from the original on 8 December Archived from the original on February 4, Archived at the Wayback Machine. Archived from the original on 12 November Retrieved 18 August J Nanosci Nanotechnol.

    Retrieved 9 November The Motley Fool. Elo Touch Systems. Archived PDF from the original on ABI Research.

    Archived from the original on 15 October Archived from the original on October 20, Retrieved October 19, Archived from the original on 11 January Fabulous analysis.

    Spectacular diagnosis of the issue before posting. Kudos to you for that. You've done a remarkable job performing the steps.

    I suggest you to review the information shared in this HP document. These steps help in fixing touchscreen related issues. Do not attempt any steps that you have already tried before.

    If the issue remains then let us run a hardware test directly on the touchscreen. The following stes will help:. The Component Tests menu displays.

    Your Component Tests menu might be different, depending on the components installed on your computer. This test is not available in the Windows version of the hardware diagnostics at this time.

    If the above steps fail to fix the issue then you may reach out to our HP phone support team to check the available service options for your PC.

    Hope this information helps. Feel free to keep me posted. Good luck! I have worked through the suggested repairs offered without success. Most of these suggestions I had previously carried out before my posting.

    The BIOS menu does not have an option to test the touch screen as mentioned in your response. It's a pity it doesn't offer that option, why? As to having updates.

    Firstly the Windows CU update followed by the update. I have had updates in the past that have changed the computer either by adding or removing previous settings.

    Is it possible that Windows updates have removed the mechanics of the touch screen. Enclosure Color. Diagonal Size. Aspect Ratio. Active Area mm. Other Supported Resolutions.

    Viewing Angle. Number of Colors. Brightness typical. Response Time-total typical. Contrast Ratio. Touch Interface. Surface Treatment.

    On Screen Display. Two x 2W internal speakers. Input Video Format. Input Video Frequency. Horizontal: 30 — 82KHz Vertical: 50 - 75Hz.

    Power Consumption Typical. Input Voltage. Input Connector. Peripheral Mounting. Monitor Dimensions without Stand. Monitor Dimensions with Stand.

    Shipping Box Dimensions. Weight Unpackaged. Weight Packaged. Operating Temperature. Storage Temperature.

    Touchscreen sealed to bezel; Touchscreen sealed to LCD. Mounting Options. VESA 4-hole mm mounting interface on rear of unit.

    Extended Warranty Options. Regulatory approvals and declarations. Ingress Protection. IPX1 - Front only.

    Touchscreens are found in the medical field, heavy industry , automated teller machines ATMs , and kiosks such as museum displays or room automation , where keyboard and mouse systems do not allow a suitably intuitive, rapid, or accurate interaction by the user with the display's content.

    Historically, the touchscreen sensor and its accompanying controller-based firmware have been made available by a wide array of after-market system integrators , and not by display, chip, or motherboard manufacturers.

    Display manufacturers and chip manufacturers have acknowledged the trend toward acceptance of touchscreens as a user interface component and have begun to integrate touchscreens into the fundamental design of their products.

    Eric Johnson, of the Royal Radar Establishment , located in Malvern , England, described his work on capacitive touchscreens in a short article published in [7] [8] and then more fully—with photographs and diagrams—in an article published in Then manufactured by CERN, and shortly after by industry partners, [12] it was put to use in In , a group at the University of Illinois filed for a patent on an optical touchscreen [16] that became a standard part of the Magnavox Plato IV Student Terminal and thousands were built for this purpose.

    This arrangement could sense any fingertip-sized opaque object in close proximity to the screen. A similar touchscreen was used on the HP starting in The HP was one of the world's earliest commercial touchscreen computers.

    In , Fujitsu released a touch pad for the Micro 16 to accommodate the complexity of kanji characters, which were stored as tiled graphics.

    It consisted of a plastic pen and a plastic board with a transparent window where pen presses are detected. It was used primarily with a drawing software application.

    Touch-sensitive control-display units CDUs were evaluated for commercial aircraft flight decks in the early s. Initial research showed that a touch interface would reduce pilot workload as the crew could then select waypoints, functions and actions, rather than be "head down" typing latitudes, longitudes, and waypoint codes on a keyboard.

    An effective integration of this technology was aimed at helping flight crews maintain a high level of situational awareness of all major aspects of the vehicle operations including the flight path, the functioning of various aircraft systems, and moment-to-moment human interactions.

    In the early s, General Motors tasked its Delco Electronics division with a project aimed at replacing an automobile's non-essential functions i.

    The finished device was dubbed the ECC for "Electronic Control Center", a digital computer and software control system hardwired to various peripheral sensors , servos , solenoids , antenna and a monochrome CRT touchscreen that functioned both as display and sole method of input.

    The ECC was standard equipment on the — Buick Riviera and later the — Buick Reatta , but was unpopular with consumers—partly due to the technophobia of some traditional Buick customers, but mostly because of costly technical problems suffered by the ECC's touchscreen which would render climate control or stereo operation impossible.

    Multi-touch technology began in , when the University of Toronto 's Input Research Group developed the first human-input multi-touch system, using a frosted-glass panel with a camera placed behind the glass.

    In , the University of Toronto group, including Bill Buxton, developed a multi-touch tablet that used capacitance rather than bulky camera-based optical sensing systems see History of multi-touch.

    The first commercially available graphical point-of-sale POS software was demonstrated on the bit Atari ST color computer.

    It featured a color touchscreen widget-driven interface. Touchscreens had a bad reputation of being imprecise until Most user-interface books would state that touchscreen selections were limited to targets larger than the average finger.

    At the time, selections were done in such a way that a target was selected as soon as the finger came over it, and the corresponding action was performed immediately.

    Errors were common, due to parallax or calibration problems, leading to user frustration. As users touch the screen, feedback is provided as to what will be selected: users can adjust the position of the finger, and the action takes place only when the finger is lifted off the screen.

    Sears et al. The HCIL team developed and studied small touchscreen keyboards including a study that showed users could type at 25 wpm on a touchscreen keyboard , aiding their introduction on mobile devices.

    They also designed and implemented multi-touch gestures such as selecting a range of a line, connecting objects, and a "tap-click" gesture to select while maintaining location with another finger.

    In , HCIL demonstrated a touchscreen slider, [30] which was later cited as prior art in the lock screen patent litigation between Apple and other touchscreen mobile phone vendors in relation to U.

    Patent 7,, An early attempt at a handheld game console with touchscreen controls was Sega 's intended successor to the Game Gear , though the device was ultimately shelved and never released due to the expensive cost of touchscreen technology in the early s.

    The first mobile phone with a capacitive touchscreen was LG Prada released in May which was before the first iPhone. Touchscreens would not be popularly used for video games until the release of the Nintendo DS in This has changed with the commercialization of multi-touch technology, and the Apple Watch being released with a force-sensitive display in April There are a variety of touchscreen technologies with different methods of sensing touch.

    A resistive touchscreen panel comprises several thin layers, the most important of which are two transparent electrically resistive layers facing each other with a thin gap between.

    The top layer that which is touched has a coating on the underside surface; just beneath it is a similar resistive layer on top of its substrate.

    One layer has conductive connections along its sides, the other along top and bottom. A voltage is applied to one layer and sensed by the other.

    When an object, such as a fingertip or stylus tip, presses down onto the outer surface, the two layers touch to become connected at that point.

    The panel then behaves as a pair of voltage dividers , one axis at a time. By rapidly switching between each layer, the position of pressure on the screen can be detected.

    Resistive touch is used in restaurants, factories and hospitals due to its high tolerance for liquids and contaminants. A major benefit of resistive-touch technology is its low cost.

    Additionally, as only sufficient pressure is necessary for the touch to be sensed, they may be used with gloves on, or by using anything rigid as a finger substitute.

    Disadvantages include the need to press down, and a risk of damage by sharp objects. Resistive touchscreens also suffer from poorer contrast, due to having additional reflections i.

    Surface acoustic wave SAW technology uses ultrasonic waves that pass over the touchscreen panel. When the panel is touched, a portion of the wave is absorbed.

    The change in ultrasonic waves is processed by the controller to determine the position of the touch event. Surface acoustic wave touchscreen panels can be damaged by outside elements.

    Contaminants on the surface can also interfere with the functionality of the touchscreen. A capacitive touchscreen panel consists of an insulator , such as glass , coated with a transparent conductor , such as indium tin oxide ITO.

    Different technologies may be used to determine the location of the touch. The location is then sent to the controller for processing.

    Touchscreens that use silver instead of ITO exist, as ITO causes several environmental problems due to the use of indium.

    Unlike a resistive touchscreen , some capacitive touchscreens cannot be used to detect a finger through electrically insulating material, such as gloves.

    This disadvantage especially affects usability in consumer electronics, such as touch tablet PCs and capacitive smartphones in cold weather when people may be wearing gloves.

    It can be overcome with a special capacitive stylus, or a special-application glove with an embroidered patch of conductive thread allowing electrical contact with the user's fingertip.

    Some capacitive display manufacturers continue to develop thinner and more accurate touchscreens. Those for mobile devices are now being produced with 'in-cell' technology, such as in Samsung's Super AMOLED screens, that eliminates a layer by building the capacitors inside the display itself.

    This type of touchscreen reduces the visible distance between the user's finger and what the user is touching on the screen, reducing the thickness and weight of the display, which is desirable in smartphones.

    A simple parallel-plate capacitor has two conductors separated by a dielectric layer. Most of the energy in this system is concentrated directly between the plates.

    Some of the energy spills over into the area outside the plates, and the electric field lines associated with this effect are called fringing fields.

    Part of the challenge of making a practical capacitive sensor is to design a set of printed circuit traces which direct fringing fields into an active sensing area accessible to a user.

    A parallel-plate capacitor is not a good choice for such a sensor pattern. Placing a finger near fringing electric fields adds conductive surface area to the capacitive system.

    The additional charge storage capacity added by the finger is known as finger capacitance, or CF. The capacitance of the sensor without a finger present is known as parasitic capacitance, or CP.

    In this basic technology, only one side of the insulator is coated with a conductive layer. A small voltage is applied to the layer, resulting in a uniform electrostatic field.

    When a conductor, such as a human finger, touches the uncoated surface, a capacitor is dynamically formed. The sensor's controller can determine the location of the touch indirectly from the change in the capacitance as measured from the four corners of the panel.

    As it has no moving parts, it is moderately durable but has limited resolution, is prone to false signals from parasitic capacitive coupling , and needs calibration during manufacture.

    It is therefore most often used in simple applications such as industrial controls and kiosks. Although some standard capacitance detection methods are projective, in the sense that they can be used to detect a finger through a non-conductive surface, they are very sensitive to fluctuations in temperature, which expand or contract the sensing plates, causing fluctuations in the capacitance of these plates.

    This limits applications to those where the finger directly touches the sensing element or is sensed through a relatively thin non-conductive surface.

    Projected capacitive touch PCT; also PCAP technology is a variant of capacitive touch technology but where sensitivity to touch, accuracy, resolution and speed of touch have been greatly improved by the use of a simple form of "Artificial Intelligence".

    This intelligent processing enables finger sensing to be projected, accurately and reliably, through very thick glass and even double glazing. Some modern PCT touch screens are composed of thousands of discrete keys, [49] but most PCT touch screens are made of a matrix of rows and columns of conductive material, layered on sheets of glass.

    This can be done either by etching a single conductive layer to form a grid pattern of electrodes , or by etching two separate, perpendicular layers of conductive material with parallel lines or tracks to form a grid.

    In some designs, voltage applied to this grid creates a uniform electrostatic field, which can be measured. When a conductive object, such as a finger, comes into contact with a PCT panel, it distorts the local electrostatic field at that point.

    This is measurable as a change in capacitance. If a finger bridges the gap between two of the "tracks", the charge field is further interrupted and detected by the controller.

    The capacitance can be changed and measured at every individual point on the grid. This system is able to accurately track touches.

    Due to the top layer of a PCT being glass, it is sturdier than less-expensive resistive touch technology. Unlike traditional capacitive touch technology, it is possible for a PCT system to sense a passive stylus or gloved finger.

    However, moisture on the surface of the panel, high humidity, or collected dust can interfere with performance.

    These environmental factors, however, are not a problem with 'fine wire' based touchscreens due to the fact that wire based touchscreens have a much lower 'parasitic' capacitance, and there is greater distance between neighbouring conductors.

    This is a common PCT approach, which makes use of the fact that most conductive objects are able to hold a charge if they are very close together.

    In mutual capacitive sensors, a capacitor is inherently formed by the row trace and column trace at each intersection of the grid.

    A voltage is applied to the rows or columns. Bringing a finger or conductive stylus close to the surface of the sensor changes the local electrostatic field, which in turn reduces the mutual capacitance.

    The capacitance change at every individual point on the grid can be measured to accurately determine the touch location by measuring the voltage in the other axis.

    Mutual capacitance allows multi-touch operation where multiple fingers, palms or styli can be accurately tracked at the same time. Self-capacitance sensors can have the same X-Y grid as mutual capacitance sensors, but the columns and rows operate independently.

    With self-capacitance, the capacitive load of a finger is measured on each column or row electrode by a current meter, or the change in frequency of an RC oscillator.

    A finger may be detected anywhere along the whole length of a row. This allows for the speedy and accurate detection of a single finger, but it causes some ambiguity if more than one finger is to be detected.

    However, by selectively de-sensitizing any touch-points in contention, conflicting results are easily eliminated. Alternatively, ambiguity can be avoided by applying a "de-sensitizing" signal to all but one of the columns.

    By selecting a sequence of these sections along the row, it is possible to determine the accurate position of multiple fingers along that row.

    This process can then be repeated for all the other rows until the whole screen has been scanned.

    Self capacitance is far more sensitive than mutual capacitance and is mainly used for single touch, simple gesturing and proximity sensing where the finger does not even have to touch the glass surface.

    Mutual capacitance is mainly used for multitouch applications. Capacitive touchscreens do not necessarily need to be operated by a finger, but until recently the special styli required could be quite expensive to purchase.

    The cost of this technology has fallen greatly in recent years and capacitive styli are now widely available for a nominal charge, and often given away free with mobile accessories.

    These consist of an electrically conductive shaft with a soft conductive rubber tip, thereby resistively connecting the fingers to the tip of the stylus.

    An infrared touchscreen uses an array of X-Y infrared LED and photodetector pairs around the edges of the screen to detect a disruption in the pattern of LED beams.

    These LED beams cross each other in vertical and horizontal patterns. This helps the sensors pick up the exact location of the touch. A major benefit of such a system is that it can detect essentially any opaque object including a finger, gloved finger, stylus or pen.

    It is generally used in outdoor applications and POS systems that cannot rely on a conductor such as a bare finger to activate the touchscreen.

    Unlike capacitive touchscreens , infrared touchscreens do not require any patterning on the glass which increases durability and optical clarity of the overall system.

    Infrared touchscreens are sensitive to dirt and dust that can interfere with the infrared beams, and suffer from parallax in curved surfaces and accidental press when the user hovers a finger over the screen while searching for the item to be selected.

    A translucent acrylic sheet is used as a rear-projection screen to display information. The edges of the acrylic sheet are illuminated by infrared LEDs, and infrared cameras are focused on the back of the sheet.

    Objects placed on the sheet are detectable by the cameras. When the sheet is touched by the user, the deformation results in leakage of infrared light which peaks at the points of maximum pressure, indicating the user's touch location.

    Microsoft's PixelSense tablets use this technology. Optical touchscreens are a relatively modern development in touchscreen technology, in which two or more image sensors such as CMOS sensors are placed around the edges mostly the corners of the screen.

    A touch blocks some lights from the sensors, and the location and size of the touching object can be calculated see visual hull. This technology is growing in popularity due to its scalability, versatility, and affordability for larger touchscreens.

    Introduced in by 3M , this system detects a touch by using sensors to measure the piezoelectricity in the glass. Complex algorithms interpret this information and provide the actual location of the touch.

    Since there is no need for additional elements on screen, it also claims to provide excellent optical clarity. Any object can be used to generate touch events, including gloved fingers.

    A downside is that after the initial touch, the system cannot detect a motionless finger. However, for the same reason, resting objects do not disrupt touch recognition.

    The key to this technology is that a touch at any one position on the surface generates a sound wave in the substrate which then produces a unique combined signal as measured by three or more tiny transducers attached to the edges of the touchscreen.

    The digitized signal is compared to a list corresponding to every position on the surface, determining the touch location. A moving touch is tracked by rapid repetition of this process.

    Extraneous and ambient sounds are ignored since they do not match any stored sound profile. The technology differs from other sound-based technologies by using a simple look-up method rather than expensive signal-processing hardware.

    As with the dispersive signal technology system, a motionless finger cannot be detected after the initial touch. However, for the same reason, the touch recognition is not disrupted by any resting objects.

    The technology was created by SoundTouch Ltd in the early s, as described by the patent family EP, and introduced to the market by Tyco International 's Elo division in as Acoustic Pulse Recognition.

    The technology usually retains accuracy with scratches and dust on the screen. The technology is also well suited to displays that are physically larger.

    There are several principal ways to build a touchscreen. The key goals are to recognize one or more fingers touching a display, to interpret the command that this represents, and to communicate the command to the appropriate application.

    In the resistive approach, which used to be the most popular technique, there are typically four layers:.

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