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    Die Geflügelpest wird auch als aviäre. Many translated example sentences containing "bird flu" – German-English dictionary and search engine for German translations. Avian influenza virus, strain H5N1, is the latest flu virus with the potential to trigger a pandemic outbreak of flu due to its high lethality in birds and humans. Description: This transmission electron micrograph (TEM), taken at a magnification of ,x, revealed the ultrastructural details of an avian influenza A. Bird flu is the latest such menace coming home to roost. Leading public health authorities now predict as inevitable a pandemic of influenza, triggered by bird flu​.

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    Meanwhile, the term “ bird flu ” is commonly used for all infections with avian influenza viruses, independently of the subtype, the pathogenicity and the. Description: This transmission electron micrograph (TEM), taken at a magnification of ,x, revealed the ultrastructural details of an avian influenza A. Many translated example sentences containing "bird flu" – German-English dictionary and search engine for German translations.

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    Flu spreads around the world in seasonal epidemics. Ten pandemics were recorded before the Spanish flu of Often, these new strains result from the spread of an existing flu virus to humans from other animal species , so close proximity between humans and animals can promote epidemics.

    In addition, epidemiological factors, such as the WWI practice of packing soldiers with severe influenza illness into field hospitals while soldiers with mild illness stayed outside on the battlefield, are an important determinant of whether or not a new strain of influenza virus will spur a pandemic.

    When it first killed humans in Asia in the s, a deadly avian strain of H5N1 posed a great risk for a new influenza pandemic; however, this virus did not mutate to spread easily between people.

    Vaccinations against influenza are most commonly given to high-risk humans in industrialized countries [15] and to farmed poultry.

    Typically this vaccine includes material from two influenza A virus subtypes and one influenza B virus strain. Antiviral drugs can be used to treat influenza, with neuraminidase inhibitors being particularly effective.

    Variants of Influenzavirus A are identified and named according to the isolate that they are like and thus are presumed to share lineage example Fujian flu virus like ; according to their typical host example Human flu virus ; according to their subtype example H3N2 ; and according to their deadliness e.

    Variants are sometimes named according to the species host the strain is endemic in or adapted to. Some variants named using this convention are: [19].

    Avian variants have also sometimes been named according to their deadliness in poultry, especially chickens:. The Influenza A virus subtypes are labeled according to an H number for hemagglutinin and an N number for neuraminidase.

    Each subtype virus has mutated into a variety of strains with differing pathogenic profiles; some pathogenic to one species but not others, some pathogenic to multiple species.

    Most known strains are extinct strains. For example, the annual flu subtype H3N2 no longer contains the strain that caused the Hong Kong Flu. Influenza A viruses are negative sense, single-stranded, segmented RNA viruses.

    Until recently, 15 HA types had been recognized, but recently two new types were isolated: a new type H16 was isolated from black-headed gulls caught in Sweden and the Netherlands in and reported in the literature in Others have a higher Pandemic Severity Index whose severity warrants more comprehensive social isolation measures.

    The pandemic killed tens of millions and sickened hundreds of millions; the loss of this many people in the population caused upheaval and psychological damage to many people.

    Dead bodies were often left unburied as few people were available to deal with them. There can be great social disruption as well as a sense of fear.

    Efforts to deal with pandemics can leave a great deal to be desired because of human selfishness, lack of trust, illegal behavior, and ignorance.

    For example, in the pandemic: "This horrific disconnect between reassurances and reality destroyed the credibility of those in authority.

    People felt they had no one to turn to, no one to rely on, no one to trust. It is only a matter of a few hours then until death comes [ It is horrible.

    One can stand it to see one, two or twenty men die, but to see these poor devils dropping like flies [ We have been averaging about deaths per day [ Pneumonia means in about all cases death [ We have lost an outrageous number of Nurses and Drs.

    It takes special trains to carry away the dead. For several days there were no coffins and the bodies piled up something fierce [ Flu pandemics typically come in waves.

    The — and — flu pandemics each came in three or four waves of increasing lethality. Army camps where reasonably reliable statistics were kept, case mortality often exceeded 5 percent, and in some circumstances exceeded 10 percent.

    In the British Army in India, case mortality for white troops was 9. In isolated human populations, the virus killed at even higher rates.

    In the Fiji islands, it killed 14 percent of the entire population in 16 days. In Labrador and Alaska, it killed at least one-third of the entire native population.

    A book lists nine influenza pandemics prior to the —90 flu, the first in The flu pandemic, commonly referred to as the Spanish flu , was a category 5 influenza pandemic caused by an unusually severe and deadly Influenza A virus strain of subtype H1N1.

    The Spanish flu pandemic lasted from to One observer wrote, "One of the most striking of the complications was hemorrhage from mucous membranes, especially from the nose, stomach, and intestine.

    Bleeding from the ears and petechial hemorrhages in the skin also occurred. The Spanish flu pandemic was truly global, spreading even to the Arctic and remote Pacific islands.

    The Asian flu was a category 2 flu pandemic outbreak of avian influenza that originated in China in early lasting until It originated from a mutation in wild ducks combining with a pre-existing human strain.

    Death toll in the US was approximately , The Hong Kong flu was a category 2 flu pandemic caused by a strain of H3N2 descended from H2N2 by antigenic shift , in which genes from multiple subtypes reassorted to form a new virus.

    The Hong Kong Flu pandemic of and killed an estimated one million people worldwide. An epidemic of influenza-like illness of unknown causation occurred in Mexico in March—April The next day, the number of confirmed cases rose to 40 in the US, 26 in Mexico, six in Canada, and one in Spain.

    The disease spread rapidly through the rest of the spring, and by 3 May, a total of confirmed cases had been reported worldwide.

    Experts, including the WHO, have since agreed that an estimated , people were killed by the disease, about 15 times the number of deaths in the initial death toll.

    Genetic factors in distinguishing between " human flu viruses" and "avian influenza viruses" include:. We have examined sequences from the strain, which is the only pandemic influenza virus that could be entirely derived from avian strains.

    Of the 52 species-associated positions, 16 have residues typical for human strains; the others remained as avian signatures. The result supports the hypothesis that the pandemic virus is more closely related to the avian influenza A virus than are other human influenza viruses.

    In one case, a boy with H5N1 experienced diarrhea followed rapidly by a coma without developing respiratory or flu-like symptoms.

    The Influenza A virus subtypes that have been confirmed in humans, ordered by the number of known human pandemic deaths, are:.

    H1N1 is currently endemic in both human and pig populations. Many fear that this information could be used for bioterrorism.

    When he compared the virus with today's human flu viruses, Dr. Taubenberger noticed that it had alterations in just 25 to 30 of the virus's 4, amino acids.

    Those few changes turned a bird virus into a killer that could spread from person to person. On 29 April WHO raised the worldwide pandemic phase to 5.

    The Asian Flu was a pandemic outbreak of H2N2 avian influenza that originated in China in , spread worldwide that same year during which an influenza vaccine was developed, lasted until and caused between one and four million deaths.

    H3N2 is currently endemic in both human and pig populations. It evolved from H2N2 by antigenic shift and caused the Hong Kong Flu pandemic of and that killed up to , The dominant strain of annual flu in January is H3N2.

    H7N7 has unusual zoonotic potential. In in Netherlands 89 people were confirmed to have H7N7 influenza virus infection following an outbreak in poultry on several farms.

    One death was recorded. H1N2 is currently endemic in both human and pig populations. The new H1N2 strain appears to have resulted from the reassortment of the genes of the currently circulating influenza H1N1 and H3N2 subtypes.

    The hemagglutinin protein of the H1N2 virus is similar to that of the currently circulating H1N1 viruses and the neuraminidase protein is similar to that of the current H3N2 viruses.

    The World Health Organization WHO developed a global influenza preparedness plan, which defines the stages of a pandemic, outlines WHO's role and makes recommendations for national measures before and during a pandemic.

    In the revision of the phase descriptions, the WHO has retained the use of a six-phase approach for easy incorporation of new recommendations and approaches into existing national preparedness and response plans.

    Phases 1—3 correlate with preparedness, including capacity development and response planning activities, while phases 4—6 clearly signal the need for response and mitigation efforts.

    Furthermore, periods after the first pandemic wave are elaborated to facilitate post pandemic recovery activities.

    In February , WHO spokesperson Tarik Jasarevic explained that the WHO no longer uses this six-phase classification model: "For the sake of clarification, WHO does not use the old system of 6 phases—that ranged from phase 1 no reports of animal influenza causing human infections to phase 6 a pandemic —that some people may be familiar with from H1N1 in For reference, the phases are defined below.

    In nature, influenza viruses circulate continuously among animals, especially birds. Even though such viruses might theoretically develop into pandemic viruses, in Phase 1 no viruses circulating among animals have been reported to cause infections in humans.

    In Phase 2 an animal influenza virus circulating among domesticated or wild animals is known to have caused infection in humans, and is therefore considered a potential pandemic threat.

    In Phase 3 , an animal or human-animal influenza reassortant virus has caused sporadic cases or small clusters of disease in people, but has not resulted in human-to-human transmission sufficient to sustain community-level outbreaks.

    Limited human-to-human transmission may occur under some circumstances, for example, when there is close contact between an infected person and an unprotected caregiver.

    However, limited transmission under such restricted circumstances does not indicate that the virus has gained the level of transmissibility among humans necessary to cause a pandemic.

    Phase 4 is characterized by verified human-to-human transmission of an animal or human-animal influenza reassortant virus able to cause "community-level outbreaks".

    The ability to cause sustained disease outbreaks in a community marks a significant upwards shift in the risk for a pandemic.

    Any country that suspects or has verified such an event should urgently consult with the WHO so that the situation can be jointly assessed and a decision made by the affected country if implementation of a rapid pandemic containment operation is warranted.

    Phase 4 indicates a significant increase in risk of a pandemic but does not necessarily mean that a pandemic is a foregone conclusion.

    Phase 5 is characterized by human-to-human spread of the virus into at least two countries in one WHO region.

    While most countries will not be affected at this stage, the declaration of Phase 5 is a strong signal that a pandemic is imminent and that the time to finalize the organization, communication, and implementation of the planned mitigation measures is short.

    Phase 6 , the pandemic phase, is characterized by community level outbreaks in at least one other country in a different WHO region in addition to the criteria defined in Phase 5.

    Designation of this phase will indicate that a global pandemic is under way. During the post-peak period , pandemic disease levels in most countries with adequate surveillance will have dropped below peak observed levels.

    The post-peak period signifies that pandemic activity appears to be decreasing; however, it is uncertain if additional waves will occur and countries will need to be prepared for a second wave.

    Previous pandemics have been characterized by waves of activity spread over months. Once the level of disease activity drops, a critical communications task will be to balance this information with the possibility of another wave.

    Pandemic waves can be separated by months and an immediate "at-ease" signal may be premature. In the post-pandemic period , influenza disease activity will have returned to levels normally seen for seasonal influenza.

    It is expected that the pandemic virus will behave as a seasonal influenza A virus. At this stage, it is important to maintain surveillance and update pandemic preparedness and response plans accordingly.

    An intensive phase of recovery and evaluation may be required. Historically, measures of pandemic severity were based on the case fatality rate.

    To account for the limitations of measuring the case fatality rate alone, the PSAF rates severity of a disease outbreak on two dimensions: clinical severity of illness in infected persons; and the transmissibility of the infection in the population.

    This section contains strategies to prevent a flu pandemic by a Council on Foreign Relations panel. If influenza remains an animal problem with limited human-to-human transmission it is not a pandemic, though it continues to pose a risk.

    To prevent the situation from progressing to a pandemic, the following short-term strategies have been put forward:.

    The rationale for vaccinating poultry workers against common flu is that it reduces the probability of common influenza virus recombining with avian H5N1 virus to form a pandemic strain.

    Longer-term strategies proposed for regions where highly pathogenic H5N1 is endemic in wild birds have included:. The main ways available to tackle a flu pandemic initially are behavioural.

    Doing so requires a good public health communication strategy and the ability to track public concerns, attitudes and behaviour. The Institute of Medicine has published a number of reports and summaries of workshops on public policy issues related to influenza pandemics.

    They are collected in Pandemic Influenza: A Guide to Recent Institute of Medicine Studies and Workshops , [] and some strategies from these reports are included in the list above.

    Relevant learning from the flu pandemic in the UK was published in Health Technology Assessment , volume 14, issue There are two groups of antiviral drugs available for the treatment and prophylaxis of influenza: neuraminidase inhibitors such as Oseltamivir trade name Tamiflu and Zanamivir trade name Relenza , and adamantanes such as amantadine and rimantadine.

    Due to the high rate of side effects and risk of antiviral resistance, use of adamantanes to fight influenza is limited. Many nations, as well as the World Health Organization, are working to stockpile anti-viral drugs in preparation for a possible pandemic.

    Oseltamivir is the most commonly sought drug, since it is available in pill form. Zanamivir is also considered for use, but it must be inhaled.

    Other anti-viral drugs are less likely to be effective against pandemic influenza. Both Tamiflu and Relenza are in short supply, and production capabilities are limited in the medium term.

    Email required. Comment required. Enlarge Image. Chickens roost at a poultry farm in Taizhou, China. Getty Images. More On: bird flu.

    Scientists warn of deadlier future pandemics if we don't stop this now. Environmentalists and scientists issued dire warnings this week: Stop environmental Read Next Cop charged in George Floyd death jailed outside county.

    Share Selection. There are lots of different strains of bird flu virus. Most of them don't infect humans. But there are 4 strains that have caused concern in recent years:.

    Although H5N1, H7N9 and H5N6 don't infect people easily and aren't usually spread from human to human, several people have been infected around the world, leading to a number of deaths.

    H5N8 has not infected any humans worldwide to date. Plans are in place to manage any suspected cases.

    H5N8 bird flu has been found in some wild birds and poultry in the UK. H5N6 has also been found in some wild birds in the UK but is a different strain to that seen in China.

    You can read the latest bird flu updates on GOV. Markets where live birds are sold can also be a source of bird flu. Avoid visiting these markets if you're travelling to countries that have had an outbreak of bird flu.

    You can't catch bird flu through eating fully cooked poultry or eggs, even in areas with an outbreak of bird flu. Within days of symptoms appearing, it's possible to develop more severe complications such as pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    The National Academies Press. Pandemics Spanish flu Asian flu — Hong Kong flu swine flu. While sometimes confused with the common coldinfluenza is a much more severe disease and is caused by a different type of virus. Most human cases of the avian flu are a result of either handling dead Einfach Geld Verdienen birds or from contact with infected fluids. In Birf Flu human populations, the virus killed at even Merkur Onlien rates. Flu season Influenza evolution Influenza research Influenza-like illness Vaccine reformulations. Bird flu occurs naturally in wild waterfowl and can spread into domestic poultry, such as chickens, turkeys, ducks and geese. Pandemic waves can be separated by months and an immediate "at-ease" signal may be premature. Only sporadic human cases have been reported since South China Geld Durch Internet Verdienen Post.

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    Highly pathogenic strains spread quickly among flocks and can destroy a flock within 28 hours; the less pathogenic strains may affect egg production but are much less deadly.

    Although it is possible for humans to contract the avian influenza virus from birds, human-to-human contact is much more difficult without prolonged contact.

    Five manmade ecosystems have contributed to modern avian influenza virus ecology: integrated indoor commercial poultry, range-raised commercial poultry, live poultry markets, backyard and hobby flocks, and bird collection and trading systems including cockfighting.

    Indoor commercial poultry has had the largest impact on the spread of HPAI, with the increase in HPAI outbreaks largely the result of increased commercial production since the s.

    In the early days of the HPAI H5N1 pandemic, village poultry and their owners were frequently implicated in disease transmission. However, research has shown that these flocks pose less of a threat than intensively raised commercial poultry with homogenous genetic stock and poor biosecurity.

    The highly pathogenic influenza A virus subtype H5N1 is an emerging avian influenza virus that is causing global concern as a potential pandemic threat.

    It is often referred to simply as "bird flu" or "avian influenza", even though it is only one of many subtypes. H5N1 has killed millions of poultry in a growing number of countries throughout Asia, Europe, and Africa.

    Health experts are concerned that the coexistence of human flu viruses and avian flu viruses especially H5N1 will provide an opportunity for genetic material to be exchanged between species-specific viruses, possibly creating a new virulent influenza strain that is easily transmissible and lethal to humans.

    Since the first human H5N1 outbreak occurred in , there has been an increasing number of HPAI H5N1 bird-to-human transmissions, leading to clinically severe and fatal human infections.

    Because a significant species barrier exists between birds and humans, the virus does not easily spread to humans, however some cases of infection are being researched to discern whether human-to-human transmission is occurring.

    Exposure routes and other disease transmission characteristics, such as genetic and immunological factors that may increase the likelihood of infection, are not clearly understood.

    The first known transmission of H5N1 to a human occurred in Hong Kong in , when there was an outbreak of 18 human cases; 6 deaths were confirmed.

    None of the infected people worked with poultry. After culling all of the poultry in the area, no more cases were diagnosed.

    Although millions of birds have become infected with the virus since its discovery, people have died from H5N1 in twelve countries according to World Health Organization reports as of August 10, As an example, the H5N1 outbreak in Thailand caused massive economic losses, especially among poultry workers.

    Infected birds were culled and slaughtered. The public lost confidence with the poultry products, thus decreasing the consumption of chicken products.

    This also elicited a ban from importing countries. There were, however, factors which aggravated the spread of the virus, including bird migration, cool temperature increases virus survival and several festivals at that time.

    A mutation in the virus was discovered in two Guangdong patients in February which rendered it more deadly to chickens, inasmuch as it could infect every organ; the risk to humans was not increased, however.

    A study published in in Science Magazine reported on research findings that allowed for the airborne transmission of H5N1 in laboratory ferrets.

    The study identified the 5 mutations necessary for the virus to become airborne and immediately sparked controversy over the ethical implications of making such potentially dangerous information available to the general public.

    The study was allowed to remain available in its entirety, though it remains a controversial topic within the scientific community.

    The study in question, however, created airborne H5N1 via amino acid substitutions that largely mitigated the devastating effects of the disease.

    Flu viruses attach to host cells via the hemagluttinin proteins on their envelope. These hemagluttinin proteins bind to sialic acid receptors on host cells, which can fall into two categories.

    The sialic acid receptors can be either 2,3 or 2,6-linked, with the species of origin largely deciding receptor preference. In influenzas of avian origin 2,3-linkage is preferred, vs.

    In the study that created an airborne avian influenza among ferrets it was necessary to switch the receptor preference of the host cells to those of 2,6-linkage, found predominantly in humans' upper respiratory tract, in order to create an infection that could shed aerosolized virus particles.

    Such an infection, however, must occur in the upper respiratory tract of humans, thus fundamentally undercutting the fatal trajectory of the disease.

    Influenza A virus subtype H7N9 is a novel avian influenza virus first reported to have infected humans in in China. Research regarding background and transmission is ongoing.

    Researchers have commented on the unusual prevalence of older males among H7N9-infected patients. The number of cases detected after April fell abruptly.

    The decrease in the number of new human H7N9 cases may have resulted from containment measures taken by Chinese authorities, including closing live bird markets, or from a change in seasons, or possibly a combination of both factors.

    Studies indicate that avian influenza viruses have a seasonal pattern, thus it is thought that infections may pick up again when the weather turns cooler in China.

    In the four years from early to early , lab-confirmed human cases of H7N9 were reported to WHO. Of these cases, there have been 35 deaths.

    In two of the cases, human-to-human transmission could not be ruled out. Affected prefectures in Jiangsu province closed live poultry markets in late December , whereas Zhejiang, Guangdong and Anhui provinces went the route of strengthening live poultry market regulations.

    Travellers to affected regions are recommended to avoid poultry farms, live bird markets, and surfaces which appear to be contaminated with poultry feces.

    Several domestic species have been infected with and shown symptoms of H5N1 viral infection, including cats, dogs, ferrets, pigs, and birds.

    Attempts are made in the United States to minimize the presence of HPAI in poultry through routine surveillance of poultry flocks in commercial poultry operations.

    Detection of a HPAI virus may result in immediate culling of the flock. Avian influenza in cats can show a variety of symptoms and usually lead to death.

    Cats are able to get infected by either consuming an infected bird or by contracting the virus from another infected cat.

    In , the formation of the International Partnership on Avian and Pandemic Influenza was announced in order to elevate the importance of avian flu, coordinate efforts, and improve disease reporting and surveillance in order to better respond to future pandemics.

    After the outbreak, WHO member states have also recognized the need for more transparent and equitable sharing of vaccines and other benefits from these networks.

    HPAI control has also been used for political ends. In Indonesia, negotiations with global response networks were used to recentralize power and funding to the Ministry of Health.

    Backyard poultry production was viewed as "traditional Asian" agricultural practices that contrasted with modern commercial poultry production and seen as a threat to biosecurity.

    Backyard production appeared to hold greater risk than commercial production due to lack of biosecurity and close contact with humans, though HPAI spread in intensively raised flocks was greater due to high density rearing and genetic homogeneity.

    Press accounts of avian flu in Indonesia were seen by poultry farmers as conflating suspected cases while the public did see the accounts as informative, though many became de-sensitized to the idea of impending danger or only temporarily changed their poultry-related behavior.

    These tended to focus on bird flu being linked to big businesses in order to drive small farmers out of the market by exaggerating the danger of avian influenza, avian flu being introduced by foreigners to force Indonesians to purchase imported chicken and keep Indonesian chicken off the world market, and the government using avian flu as a ploy to attract funds from wealthy countries.

    Such rumors reflected concerns about big businesses, globalization, and a distrust of the national government in a country where "the amount of decentralization here is breathtaking" according to Steven Bjorge, a WHO epidemiologist in Jakarta in In the context a decentralized national government that the public did not completely trust, Indonesian Health Minister Siti Fadilah Supari announced in December that her government would no longer be sharing samples of H5N1 collected from Indonesian patients.

    GISN is based on countries sharing virus specimens freely with the WHO which assesses and eventually sends these samples to pharmaceutical companies in order to produce vaccines that are sold back to these countries.

    Prior to Indonesia's dispute with the GISN, the Ministry of Health, already weak due to the decentralized nature the government, was experiencing further leakage of funding to state and non-state agencies due to global health interventions.

    By reasserting control over public health issues and funding by setting itself up as the sole Indonesian representative to the WHO, the Ministry of Health made itself a key player in the management of future international funds relating vaccine production and renegotiated benefits from global surveillance networks.

    In Vietnam alone, over 50 million domestic birds were killed due to HPAI infection and control attempts. As poultry serves as a source of food security and liquid assets, the most vulnerable populations were poor small scale farmers.

    People who do not regularly come into contact with birds are not at high risk for contracting avian influenza. Those at high risk include poultry farm workers, animal control workers, wildlife biologists, and ornithologists who handle live birds.

    Biosecurity of poultry flocks is also important for prevention. Flocks should be isolated from outside birds, especially wild birds, and their waste; vehicles used around the flock should be regularly disinfected and not shared between farms; and birds from slaughter channels should not be returned to the farm.

    With proper infection control and use of personal protective equipment PPE , the chance for infection is low. Protecting the eyes, nose, mouth, and hands is important for prevention because these are the most common ways for the virus to enter the body.

    Appropriate personal protective equipment includes aprons or coveralls, gloves, boots or boot covers, and a head cover or hair cover.

    Disposable PPE is recommended. A powered air purifying respirator PAPR with hood or helmet and face shield is also an option.

    Proper reporting of an isolated case can help to prevent spread. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention US recommendation is that if a worker develops symptoms within 10 days of working with infected poultry or potentially contaminated materials, they should seek care and notify their employer, who should notify public health officials.

    For future avian influenza threats, the WHO suggests a 3 phase, 5 part plan. Vaccines for poultry have been formulated against several of the avian H5N1 influenza varieties.

    Control measures for HPAI encourage mass vaccinations of poultry though The World Health Organization has compiled a list of known clinical trials of pandemic influenza prototype vaccines, including those against H5N1.

    During the initial response to H5N1, a one size fits all recommendation was used for all poultry production systems, though measures for intensively raised birds were not necessarily appropriate for extensively raised birds.

    When looking at village-raised poultry, it was first assumed that the household was the unit and that flocks did not make contact with other flocks, though more effective measures came into use when the epidemiological unit was the village.

    Recommendations involve restructuring commercial markets to improve biosecurity against avian influenza.

    Poultry production zoning is used to limit poultry farming to specific areas outside of urban environments while live poultry markets improve biosecurity by limiting the number of traders holding licenses and subjecting producers and traders to more stringent inspections.

    These recommendations in combination with requirements to fence and house all poultry, and to limit free ranging flocks, will eventually lead to fewer small commercial producers and backyard producers, costing livelihoods as they are unable to meet the conditions needed to participate.

    A summary of reports to the World Organisation for Animal Health in and suggest that surveillance and under-reporting in developed and developing countries is still a challenge.

    When HPAI tests come back negative, a lack of funded testing for differential diagnoses can leave farmers wondering what killed their birds.

    Since traditional production systems require little investment and serve as a safety net for lower income households, prevention and treatment can be seen as less cost-effective than letting poultry die.

    Culling is used in order to decrease the threat of avian influenza transmission by killing potentially infected birds.

    Culling is not recommended beyond the IA unless there is evidence of spread. This culling method was indiscriminate as a large proportion of the poultry inside these areas were small backyard flocks which did not travel great enough distances to carry infection to adjacent villages without human effort and may have not been infected at all.

    The risk of mass culling of birds and the resulting economic impact led to farmers who were reluctant to report sick poultry.

    The culls often preempted actual lab testing for H5N1 as avian flu policy justified sacrificing poultry as a safeguard against HPAI spread.

    By the end of , the government implemented a new policy that targeted high-risk flock in the immediate vicinity of infected farms and instituted voluntary culling with compensation in the case of a local outbreak.

    Not only did culling result in severe economic impacts especially for small scale farmers, culling itself may be an ineffective preventative measure.

    In the short-term, mass culling achieves its goals of limiting the immediate spread of HPAI, it has been found to impede the evolution of host resistance which is important for the long-term success of HPAI control.

    Mass culling also selects for elevated influenza virulence and results in the greater mortality of birds overall. Prevention and control programs must take into account local understandings of people-poultry relations.

    In the past, programs that have focused on singular, place-based understandings of disease transmission have been ineffective.

    In the case of Northern Vietnam, health workers saw poultry as commodities with an environment that was under the control of people. Poultry existed in the context of farms, markets, slaughterhouses, and roads while humans were indirectly the primary transmitters of avian flu, placing the burden of disease control on people.

    However, farmers saw their free ranging poultry in an environment dominated by nonhuman forces that they could not exert control over.

    There were a host of nonhuman actors such as wild birds and weather patterns whose relationships with the poultry fostered the disease and absolved farmers of complete responsibility for disease control.

    Attempts at singular, place-based controls sought to teach farmers to identify areas where their behavior could change without looking at poultry behaviors.

    NSCAI recommendations also would disrupt longstanding livestock production practices as gates impede sales by restricting assessment of birds by appearance and offend customers by limiting outside human contact.

    Instead of incorporating local knowledge into recommendations, cultural barriers were used as scapegoats for failed interventions. Prevention and control methods have been more effective when also considering the social, political, and ecological agents in play.

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Influenza caused by viruses adapted to birds. See also. Flu season Influenza evolution Influenza research Influenza-like illness Vaccine reformulations.

    Further information: Influenza A virus subtype H7N9. European Parliament. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control.

    Name required. Email required. Comment required. Enlarge Image. Chickens roost at a poultry farm in Taizhou, China. Getty Images.

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